Facts About the Layers of the Earth for Kids

Facts About the Layers of the Earth for Kids

Our planet is made up of different layers. On the surface, it is hard and rocky and underneath, there is molten flowing magma. Our planet is our home, and the very essence of our existence. If you want to teach your children about Earth, you should start by teaching them about its four layers. This article explains the layers of the earth in a simple manner.

The Four Layers of the Earth

Here is a breakdown of the structure of the earth for kids:

1. Inner Core

The inner core is the innermost layer of the planet Earth.

State of Matter

Solid super-heated metal

Temperature 

It has a high temperature ranging from 5000°C to 6000°C.

What It’s Made Up Of 

It consists of iron and nickel.

Depth

The inner core is at a depth of 5210 km from the surface and is about 1,270-1530 km thick.

Other Facts

  • The inner core is about three-quarters the size of the moon.
  • It spins a little faster than the rest of the planet.
  • The inner core is growing by about 1mm every year. In a few billion years, the outer core is thought to become entirely solid and might become a part of the inner core.

2.  Outer Core

The outer core comes in contact with the lower mantle and is a region of tremendous pressure and temperature.

State of Matter 

Mostly liquid

Temperature

The outer core is very hot. Its temperature is about 6100°C.

What It’s Made Up Of

The outer core is composed of molten iron and nickel along with some sulphur and oxygen.

Depth

The outer core is at a depth of 5,150 km from the surface and is about 2,200km thick.

Other Facts

  • The outer core is so hot that all the metals are in a liquid state.
  • The liquid metals in the outer core churn in great currents and generate the earth’s magnetic field.
  • Without the inner core protecting the earth with a magnetic field, there would be no life on the planet.

3. Mantle

The mantle is the layer just below the crust of the Earth. It is the thickest layer of the earth. The part where the mantle ends and the crust begins is called the lithosphere.

State of Matter

Semi-liquid

Temperature

The mantle’s temperature varies from 1000°C close to the crust to 3700° close to the core.

What It’s Made Up Of

It is majorly made up of iron, magnesium, and silicon.

Depth

The mantle is nearly 2,900 kilometres thick.

Other Facts

  • The mantle has currents of molten material that constantly flow from below to the top.
  • The mantle is made up of the upper mantle and the lower mantle.
  • The mantle is directly located under the sima.

4. Crust

The crust is the thin outer layer of the Earth on which we live. It breaks up into what is called tectonic plates that shift constantly.

State of Matter

Solid

Temperature 

The average temperature is about 22°C.

What It’s Made Up Of 

The continental crust is made of rocks such as granite, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.

Depth

The crust is of two types, continental and oceanic. The continental crust is 8 to 70 km thick. The oceanic crust is 8 km thick.

Other Facts

  •   The crust only makes up 1% of the Earth’s total volume.
  •   The tectonic plates of the crust float on the inner mantle.
  •   Tectonic plate activity causes earthquakes.

We hope the above information about the layers of the Earth helps you teach your children about our planet in a fun way. There’s a lot about our planet that we don’t know of. You can find enough and more information about Earth on the internet and in books, and share it with your kids!

Also Read:

Sun Facts for Children
Saturn Facts & Information for Children
Facts About Space for Children

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