The etymology of England is derived from the old English name Englaland which means the Land of the Angles. Angles were the Germanic people who settled in Great Britain after the Roman period in Medieval England. While it is a country that is highly revered for its literature-rich culture and elite accents, there is much more to England than that. Have a look here!
England History Facts
England’s history dates back to the stone age. Humans have been living in England for more than 780,000 years. Modern humans have inhabited England since the paleolithic times. Various archeological remnants from the Neolithic, Mesolithic, bronze age, and even Stonehenge are found in England.
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, followed by the Anarchy period until 1154. Then came the Hundred Years of War, followed by the War of Roses, which ended in 1845. After the English Civil war, King Charles I was executed, and the Commonwealth of England, the first government, was formed in 1649. In 1707 England, along with Wales and Scotland, unified to form Great Britain. Post Industrial Revolution, Great Britain has governed as the world’s greatest Colonial Empire, known in history. World Wars I & II deteriorated Great Britain, and the overseas colonies of the Colonial Empire got independence and grew into sovereign countries.
Geography of England
England is not an independent country but part of the home nation of The United Kingdom. It is located on the continent of Europe. Two-thirds of the island of Great Britain make up England – the offshore areas like the Isles of Scilly and Isles of Wight are part of England. Additionally, England is bordered by Scotland to its North and Wales to the west. The coastline includes North, Celtic and Irish seas along with the English Channel.
Further Geographic Facts Include:
- England is divided into two geographic zones: the Highland and Lowland zones.
- The highland zone includes the counties of Cornwall and Devon and is characterized by mountains, plains, valleys, and rocky hills. Pennine, Cumbrian, and Lake District mountains are found here.
- The lowland zone is where most English citizens live. The zone also includes the North Downs, South Downs, Chiltern & Cotswold hills.
- The land area of England is 130,395 square km (50,301 square miles) and has a coastline of 3246 km (2,016 miles).
Facts About England Climate And Food
Anyone familiar with England would know it to be a considerably wet country with frequent rainfall. However, there is much more to know about it, As there is to know about food in England. Here are some climate and food facts on England:
- The weather in England is Temperate Maritime type
- It experiences mild temperature with rainfall spread consistently through the year
- Temperature doesn’t fall below 0 °C (32 °F) in winters and doesn’t rise above 32 °C (90 °F) in summers
- January and February are the coldest months, while July is the warmest month.
- May, June, September & October typically experience mild to warm weather.
- The Northern latitude, Gulf stream, and the Atlantic Ocean predominantly influence the climatic conditions of England.
- English cuisine has different cooking styles, recipes, and traditions associated with England.
- English people have three meals a day. Breakfast is had between 7:00-9:00 am, Lunch between 12:00-1:30 pm, and Dinner (also known as supper) between 6:30-8:00 pm.
- English Breakfast is widely known across the world. This dish includes fried bacon, scrambled or poached eggs, fried mushrooms, grilled tomato, butter toast, and sausages.
- Fish and chips are a hot dish, Bangers, and Mash. The Sunday roast and roasted joints are a favorite amongst the English food.
- Apple Pie has been a traditional English cuisine and is being consumed since the Middle Ages.
- Café and tea shops are popular amongst the streets, offering a variety of fried and grilled food (burgers, sausages, pudding, baked beans, etc.) Fast food joints have been taking over the traditional café and tea shops in modern England.
- Today, sandwich, a globally famous convenience food, was named after John Montagu, who was also the 4th Earl of Sandwich. He was a passionate gambler, and one night during a game, he ordered some beef and put it between two slices of bread to avoid interruption of the game.
- Joseph Fry invented the first solid chocolate in the world in the 1850s. He was also an English type-founder.
Languages Spoken In England
While it seems evident that English would be the only widespread language spoken in the country, here are some exciting language facts for you:
- With the introduction of the English Language, the previously used British language got considerably replaced.
- Inhabitants of England belong to different racial and ethnic groups, hence speak many languages.
- While English is the first language, Polish has become the second most spoken language in England. Interestingly 140000 residents cannot speak English at all.
- With its regional influence, people speak English in different dialects and accents.
- Besides English and Polish, other languages spoken in England include Punjabi, Bengali, Gujarati, Urdu, Arabic, French, Portuguese, Welsh, Cornish, etc.
In 1707 the Kingdom of England was unified with the kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. England, as such, has never had a government of its own. In 1801 Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was formed, when the kingdom of Ireland combined with Great Britain. In 1922 most parts of Ireland got independence, and then they formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Eventually, the UK, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland formed their own parliaments, assemblies, and governments, while England continued to remain under the complete authority of the UK Government. Some interesting facts about the government are:
- The United Kingdom has been a Constitutional Monarchy; however, the reigning King or Queen does not take any political decision. Regarding governance, England has been divided into different regions: Nice government office regions, Geographical or ceremonial counties, and metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties, which act like local authorities.
- England has its own flag, which is a red-colored cross on white background. The red cross, as an emblem of England, is traced back to the Middle Ages. Another one of the most interesting England flag facts is that the cross is linked to Saint George’s cross, who is represented as a crusader.
- At present, Queen Elizabeth II of the British Monarch does not head the government. However, she continues to be the head of the state and the sovereign. The prime minister leads the government, who gets to select other ministers to run the government.
England Culture and Economy Facts
Economy and culture form a crucial part of any country, likewise in England. So, some astonishing facts about the economy and culture of England are:
- England is one of the largest and most dynamic economies in the world.
- The official currency of England is the British Sterling Pound, and the ISO Code is GBP.
- The average GDP per capita of England is £28,100.
- Until the 18th century, England was a major agricultural economy. However, post-industrial revolution, England became an extremely industrialized country.
- England has been a crucial leader in aerospace, pharmaceutical, agriculture, chemical, technical, textile, arms, space industry, automobile manufacturing, software industries, and many more.
- UK’s main stock exchange, the London Stock Exchange, is one of the largest in Europe and has made London a significant financial hub of Europe and the second-largest in the world.
- The Bank of England is United Kingdom’s central bank and is located in London.
- Natural resources like iron ore, petroleum, coal, natural gas, gypsum, clay salt, etc., are found in abundance in England.
- England has always had its own unique culture since the time of the Anglos-Saxons.
- Good social behaviors, humor, upholding traditions, following norms have always been associated with the English culture.
- England’s culture has strongly influenced the rest of the United Kingdom’s culture and is often difficult to distinguish.
- England has played a crucial role in art, literature, cinema, music, science, engineering, technology, philosophy for The UK and the rest of the world.
- The culture of England includes architecture, fashion, clothing, performing arts, cuisine, sports, folklore, media, education, and multiple religious and other festive celebrations.
- William Shakespeare to Agatha Christie from the world of literature, UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Royal Academy of Visual Arts, Architectural Marvels, Sport of Cricket, Classical music composers like Edward Elgar, Alfred Hitchcock from the cinema, Theatre, Isaac Newton, and many more have helped in shaping the art, history, and culture of England and impacted the rest of the world too.
Famous Things About England
England is famous for a lot of things, some you may know, some you may not. Here is a mixed bag of some things that England is renowned for:
- The Royal Family: Queen Elizabeth-II and her Royal Family
- City of London: Famous for the Royal Residences of the Monarch, Queen of England, famous for its century’s old traditions and ceremonies
- Educational Institutes: Cambridge, Oxford, Other universities of London that have made it to the top world rankings
- The Famous Writer of All Times: William Shakespeare and his plays Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo, and Juliet
- Famous Landmarks: Buckingham Palace, Big Ben, London Eye, Stonehenge, Windsor Castle, Cathedrals and Palaces
- Pop Stars: Beatles, Phill Collins, Rolling Stone, Spice Girls, David Bowie, Elton John, and many more
- Climate: England is famous for its climate and lush green countryside
- Pubs: English pubs are a part of everyday living and have become an essential place for community gatherings
- Delectable Cheese: The world-famous cheese varieties like Cheddar, Cheshire, Gloucester, Stilton, red Leicester are from England.
- Wimbledon: The world-famous Tennis Tournament
Other Important Facts and Information of England For Children
Some other fun facts to grasp the interest of children are:
- The capital of England is London.
- The longest river in England is The River Thames.
- London’s Big Ben is not a clock; however, the bell inside it is.
- The highest Mountain of England is Scafell Pike (3,209 ft)
- Lake Windermere is the largest lake in England
- France and England are at a distance of 34 Km (21 miles) from each other, connected by an underwater tunnel known as the Channel Tunnel.
- The London Bridge is in Arizona, which was sold for $3M and was taken brick by brick to its new owner.
- Tim Berners-Lee from England invented the World Wide Web (www).
- England has fought the shortest war in History with Zanzibar that lasted for about 38 to 45 minutes.
- Chicken Tikka Masala, an Indian dish, is considered the National Dish
- It is illegal to get drunk in English pubs
- Champagne which is sparkling wine, was first invented in England and not in France.
- Leeds in England is one of its rainiest cities.
- Putting a postage stamp on an envelope with the Queen’s head upside down is a punishable crime.
- The Queen owns all the whales in the surrounding waters of the UK
- The stamp of England lacks its name
England is one of the important countries in the world and for the world economy. The information here can help kids get a good insight into England. You get to know about the rich culture, history, heritage, tradition and transformation to the modern times and keeping pace with the new generation. In this way, kids can learn a lot about England’s history, climate, government, culture, economy, and other historical facts about England for preschoolers.