Polyhydramnios

Along with the joys of pregnancy, comes the vast amount of knowledge required in order to stay healthy. Around the start of your second trimester, your uterus starts filling up with a yellow clear liquid. This is known as the amniotic fluid, and it surrounds the foetus inside the amniotic sac. It performs several functions, such as allowing free movement of the foetus, aiding lung development, maintaining a set thermal environment, and protecting against outside impacts and infections.

What is Polyhydramnios?

The baby in your womb is constantly swallowing the amniotic fluid and excreting it again as urine, thereby maintaining a constant volume of the fluid. Occasionally, this balance can get messed up, leading to an abnormal increase in the amount of amniotic fluid. The amount of amniotic fluid is normally between 600 – 800 mL in the later stages of pregnancy. If the amount of amniotic fluid in your uterus exceeds 1.5 litres, you will develop a condition known as polyhydramnios.

Is It Common to Have Polyhydramnios?

The volume of amniotic fluid in the uterus increases gradually throughout your pregnancy, until around the 36th week, after which it decreases until delivery. Most cases are mild to moderate, but occasionally it can be very severe. Polyhydramnios is a rare condition, experienced by less than 1% of all pregnant women.

What Are the Symptoms?

Polyhydramnios occurs at the beginning of the third trimester and usually has no noticeable symptoms. It is the pressure placed on the belly and internal organs by the amniotic sac that is the first symptom. Other signs that you might have the condition include shortness of breath, constipation, heartburn, rapid weight gain, abdominal and feet swelling, reduction in urine, fatigue, unexpected enlargement of the pregnancy bump (macrosomia), and so on. However, as you might have read, these symptoms are very common in pregnant women. If you are concerned about having polyhydramnios or if any of these symptoms become worse, you should definitely see your doctor immediately.

Causes

What causes too much amniotic fluid? Well, finding a specific cause for polyhydramnios is not easy at all. In nearly 50% of all cases, a cause cannot be identified.The increase in amniotic fluid could be linked to your health, the baby or your placenta. Ceratin conditions that can cause this include:

1. Pregnancy with twins or multiple babies

If you’re carrying more than one baby in your belly, the chances of polyhydramnios is high. Especially with identical twins, who can develop a twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, in which one fetus receives more amniotic fluid than the other. This creates an imbalance in the flow of fluid in the amniotic sac.

2. Chorioangioma

This is a condition in which there is an abnormal growth on the placenta. Polyhydramnios is one in addition to several other complications.

3. Genetic defects

The risk of getting polyhydramnios is linked to genetic conditions like Down’s syndrome. Babies with these defects tend to have a high amniotic fluid levels surrounding them.

4. Foetal Anaemia

This is a condition in which the baby’s urination output is greatly increased, which in turn increases the volume of amniotic fluid.

5. Swallowing problems in the foetus

Sometimes there might be a blockage in your baby’s food pipe or intestines. Occasionally, this could happen due to neural tube defects, cleft palate or hydrocephalus. Due to this, the fetus cannot control the level of amniotic fluid as usual.

6. Maternal diabetes

If you have diabetes, or contract gestational diabetes during your pregnancy, your unregulated blood sugar could cause your baby to produce more urine. This increases the fluid in the amniotic sac.

7. Certain infections

Contracting illnesses like Erythema infectiosum or toxoplasmosis could result in higher amniotic fluid being produced.

Polyhydramnios Complications

The complications depend mainly on the amount of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus. Luckily, polyhydramnios is unlikely to cause many issues with your pregnancy. However, there are a few polyhydramnios risks that you have to look out for.

1. Difficulty giving birth

It might be tricky for the foetus to enter the pelvis during labour, drawing the umbilical cord out before the baby. This is known as a cord prolapse, and you might have to undergo a caesarean surgery.

2. Placental abruption

This is when the placenta tears away from the uterine wall during labour, which could lead to haemorrhaging.

3. Rupture of the amniotic sac

The amniotic sac can rip, making your water break before the due date. This could result in a premature birth.

4. Foetus malpresentation

The baby’s feet are facing the cervix in this condition, instead of the usual head-down position. This might require a C-section for successful delivery.

5. Bleeding after delivery

You might undergo severe bleeding after giving birth due to the injuries to your placenta and uterus.

6. Stillbirth

Polyhydramnios increases the risk of a stillbirth, which is the death of the fetus in the uterus.

Diagnosis

If you or your doctor suspects the possibility of polyhydramnios, there are several means by which a successful diagnosis can be done.

1. Foetal ultrasonography

Doing an ultrasound is the most effective technique to check for polyhydramnios. If there is any evidence, a more comprehensive ultrasound technique can be employed, which can measure the amniotic fluid in four of the deepest uterine cavities. The doctor will then calculate your amniotic fluid index, which is usually between 12-24 cm in the 34th week of pregnancy. A value above 25 cm means you have polyhydramnios with increasing values indicating higher severities.

2. Glucose challenge

This test checks if you have developed diabetes during the pregnancy. If your blood sugar is higher than normal after periodic measurements, gestational diabetes is diagnosed. The presence of this can further confirm polyhydramnios.

3. Karyotyping

This is employed to test for genetic abnormalities in the foetus. The doctor will obtain the foetal cells by taking some of the amniotic fluid or a piece of the placenta. Congenital defects are a strong marker for polyhydramnios.

4. Amniocentesis

This is one of the easiest methods of testing, where amniotic fluid is extracted from the uterus via an injection. The fluid can then be tested for infections and other problems.

Test to Monitor Diagnosed Polyhydramnios

Receiving a diagnosis of polyhydramnios is not as scary as it sounds. Your doctor will have your pregnancy closely monitored, with regular ultrasounds to calculate your amniotic fluid index. Besides amniotic fluid text, other tests that can be done to estimate the baby’s health are:

1. Specialised ultrasonography

This technique employs the Doppler Effect to obtain a detailed understanding about the structure of blood vessels and the circulation of blood in the foetus. The ultrasound can also check for foetal defects.

2. Non-stress test

A non-stress test is crucial to measure the physical condition of your growing foetus. It is done by calculating the reaction of the foetus’ heart rate during movement. The doctor will place a device on your belly to check the baby’s heart. He might also ask you to consume something to make the baby move around.

3. Biophysical test

Sometimes your doctor will conduct the ultrasonography with the non-stress test in conjunction to gain details about the foetus’ heart and breathing rate, physical structure and the amniotic fluid test index.

Treatment for Polyhydramnios

As most cases of polyhydramnios are moderate, the condition often resolves itself over time. Your doctor might recommend a few treatments if they suspect the case is severe.

1. Hospital admission

You might have to spend a few weeks in the hospital in cases where bed rest is important.

2. Diabetes treatment

If you have maternal diabetes, meeting with a diabetes specialist is crucial. They will help you reduce the amount of blood sugar in your body, and thereby the level of amniotic fluid.

3. Induced labour

If the biophysical tests indicate any foetal abnormalities or defects, you might have to go through early labour at the hospital. Once the baby is born, any necessary surgeries can be conducted to help your baby.

4. Medication

There are several medications that can control the amount of amniotic fluid in your uterus, such as indomethacin, usually prescribed in the last trimester. However, the medication might have side effects like stomach irritation, nausea and vomiting.

How to Manage Polyhydramnios?

Polyhydramnios makes you feel bloated and exhausted. Talk to your doctor for suggestions for polyhydramnios management. There are few things to do at home for relief.

1. Avoid physical activity

Shortness of breath can be controlled by avoiding too much walking, running or climbing stairs. Bed rest is strongly recommended to prevent further pain or swelling in your legs. You might even want to prepone the date you start your maternity leave.

2. Controlling heartburn

As the uterus exerts pressure on the digestive organs, you might want to control this by eating small regular meals, staying up after eating for a few hours, avoiding spice in food, sleeping in a slightly upright position, and taking antacid medications.

3. Reducing anxiety

The stress from your pregnancy and polyhydramnios will have you feeling more anxious than usual. Try to relax more often by meeting friends, going out, watching movies, reading, or taking classes with experienced antenatal professionals.

Is It Possible to Drain Extra Fluid?

Polyhydramnios is mostly harmless but as extreme cases can cause severe complications such as premature or stillbirths and uterine haemorrhaging, your doctor might suggest amnio-reduction. This process involves manually draining the excess amniotic fluid. This is mostly recommended in cases where labour is premature. The technique used is amniocentesis, where the amniotic fluid is removed via an injection coupled with a vacuum pump to suction out the excess fluid. Usually around 1 litre is removed during the process.

Conclusion

Polyhydramnios pregnancies almost always go through early labour, so early hospitalisation is your best bet. However, if you want to remain at home, ensure you prepare for an emergency delivery at least a few weeks in advance. Make sure you have your close family and partner fully aware of the situation in case you need help. If you are at home when your water breaks, the most important thing to do is get on your hands and knees to avoid the umbilical cord from prolapsing. If this happens, call an ambulance and wait for them to arrive. Under no circumstances must you try pushing the cord back inside. Try not to eat and drink anything either. Once you reach the hospital, you will be in safe hands as the doctor will take care of you from then on.

Also Read: How to Increase and Decrease Amniotic Fluid during Pregnancy