Menopause or Pregnant: Symptoms and Diagnosis Explained

Menopause vs Pregnancy – Know the Symptoms

Pregnancy is the time when a baby is conceived and develops inside a woman’s body. It lasts about 37 to 40 weeks and is divided into three trimesters of around 12 weeks each. Menopause signals the end of female reproductive ability. The woman stops ovulating and having menstrual periods. It is the end of a woman’s fertility.

Pregnancy and menopause share several symptoms. With women preferring to give birth at a later age, it may be difficult for women to determine if their initial symptoms are caused by pregnancy or menopause. You may be confused whether you’re experiencing pregnancy or menopause. This article explains the similarities and the differences between the two.

Symptoms Common to Both Pregnancy and Menopause

During pregnancy, the body goes through a lot of physical and hormonal changes that cause various symptoms. Similarly, menopause also causes changes in the body. Most women experience menopause in their late-40s to mid-50s. Before that, they go through perimenopause, which is an onset of symptoms before the actual menopause. Perimenopause can begin in the mid to late 40s and last anywhere between 2 to 8 years.

Here are the symptoms that are common to both pregnancy and menopause:

1. Changes in Menstrual Cycle

Both pregnant women and women in perimenopause will experience changes in their menstrual cycles. Missed periods are usually an indicator of pregnancy, while irregular periods are an indicator of the start of menopause. Signs of irregular periods are spotting between periods, changes in blood flow, and shorter or longer periods.

2. Mood Swings

Hormonal increases and decreases can cause mood swings in both perimenopause and pregnancy. During pregnancy, the hormonal changes may make you feel very emotional and tearful. During perimenopause, women may be irritable, gloomy or depressed.

3. Headaches

Both pregnant women and women in perimenopause suffer headaches. The loss of oestrogen in menopause causes headaches. The increase in levels of the hormones, such as oestrogen, progesterone, and hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin), cause headaches during pregnancy. 

4. Weight Changes

Both pregnancy and menopause cause changes in body weight. Weight gain is gradual in pregnancy, with the woman slowly gaining weight as the baby grows. During menopause, hormonal changes cause weight gain, particularly around the abdomen. A slowdown in metabolism during menopause makes it difficult for women to sustain a healthy weight.

5. Changes in Sex Drive

Changes in libido are common in both pregnancy and menopause. However, women are more likely to have a decreased libido during menopause, while their sex drive may increase or decrease during pregnancy.

6. Cramps and Bloating

Hormonal changes may cause cramping and bloating in early pregnancy. Similarly, bloating and cramping also occur during menopause. Cramping during menopause can be an indicator that the menstrual period is about to begin.

7. Night Sweats and Hot Flashes

Hot flashes and night sweats are usual symptoms of menopause. However, women can experience night sweats and hot flashes in early pregnancy, too. A hot flash is a rush of heat that can cause sweating and flushed, reddish skin, especially on the face.

8. Incontinence

The increased blood volume in pregnancy puts pressure on the kidneys since they have to process higher volumes of fluids. This increases the urge to urinate in most women, and you might find yourself going to the loo more often! Also, the growing uterus puts pressure on the bladder, causing incontinence in early pregnancy. During menopause, loss of muscle and tissue tone causes incontinence.

9. Sleep Problems and Fatigue

During pregnancy, high levels of progesterone cause fatigue which cause women to feel sleepy. In perimenopause, women have trouble falling asleep and staying asleep through the night. This leads to sleep deprivation and tiredness.

A Comparison of Common Symptoms: Perimenopause vs. Pregnancy

This comparison aims to shed light on the overlapping symptoms that might leave individuals wondering whether they are experiencing the early signs of perimenopause or pregnancy.

Symptoms Seen in Perimenopause Seen in Pregnancy
A missed period
Increased urination  
Hot flashes and night sweats
Weight gain
Bloating and cramping
Fatigue and sleep problems
Decreased libido
Increased libido  
Mood changes
Loss of fertility  
Loss of bone mass  
Cholesterol changes  
Sensitive and swollen breasts  
Vaginal dryness  
Food sensitivity  

Symptoms Occurring Only in Pregnancy

While there are overlapping symptoms of pregnancy and menopause, the following symptoms specific to pregnancy will make it easier to understand your own condition.

1. Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy are called morning sickness. It is caused by high levels of the pregnancy hormone hCG. This takes place during the first trimester. Although it is called ‘morning’ sickness, nausea and vomiting can occur at any time of the day or night. The morning sickness usually subsides after the third month of pregnancy.

2. Soreness and Sensitivity in Breasts

The hormonal changes in early pregnancy make the breasts very sensitive and sore. This disappears once the body adjusts to the hormonal surges.

3. Constipation

An increase in progesterone levels during pregnancy relaxes the muscles throughout the body. This slows down the digestive system and leads to constipation.

4. Hypersensitivity to Foods

During pregnancy, women experience both food cravings as well as food aversions. This is due to high levels of the pregnancy hormone hCG.

Pregnant woman

Symptoms Occurring Only in Menopause

1. Loss of Bone Density

Reduced levels of oestrogen in the body during perimenopause cause a decrease in bone density. This leads to a risk of osteoporosis, a medical condition in which bones become fragile and brittle from loss of tissue. To prevent loss of bone mass, women in their late 40s are advised to take calcium and vitamin D supplements.

2. Dryness in the Vagina

Decreased oestrogen levels also cause a reduction in elasticity and lubrication of the vagina. This can cause bleeding after sex and make sex uncomfortable.

3. Reduced Fertility

Menopause signals the end of female fertility. Women approaching menopause stop ovulating regularly and have lower chances of becoming pregnant. However, menstruating women can still become pregnant.

4. Cholesterol Problems and Risk of Heart Disease

Lower oestrogen levels cause an increase in LDL cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein), also called bad cholesterol. This increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Woman experiencing hot flush and headache

How Are Pregnancy and Menopause Diagnosed?

Both pregnancy and menopause can be correctly diagnosed and confirmed by a doctor. If you are in your 40s and are experiencing symptoms that may be caused by either pregnancy or menopause, you can follow these steps to diagnose it correctly:

1. Diagnosis of Pregnancy

If you doubt whether it is menopause or pregnancy that is causing your symptoms, take a home pregnancy test to confirm it. Make sure you confirm the result with your doctor to make sure the home pregnancy test did not give you a false positive or negative result. The doctor will confirm your pregnancy with a blood or urine test and a pregnancy ultrasound scan. The ultrasound scan is the method most doctors use to confirm a viable pregnancy.

2. Diagnosis of Menopause

Confirm with your doctor if you do not know whether your symptoms are caused by pregnancy or menopause. This confirmation is done via blood and urine tests to rule out pregnancy. The doctor will also do blood tests to determine levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone. He will also consider all the symptoms a woman experiences, including changes in menstruation, to diagnose menopause.

How Are Pregnancy and Menopause Treated?

Managing pregnancy and menopause involves distinct strategies. Pregnancy requires comprehensive prenatal care and occasional medical interventions, while menopause calls for a combination of lifestyle adjustments and, if necessary, hormone therapy. Both phases necessitate tailored approaches to ensure the well-being of women during these transformative stages.

1. Treatment for Pregnancy

Pregnancy is a natural and complex physiological process that requires careful attention to ensure the well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus. The primary approach to managing pregnancy involves prenatal care, a comprehensive strategy that includes regular check-ups, nutritional guidance, and lifestyle recommendations. Additionally, healthcare providers may prescribe prenatal vitamins containing essential nutrients like folic acid to support fetal development. In certain cases, medical interventions may be necessary to address complications or health concerns during pregnancy. It is crucial for expectant mothers to maintain open communication with their healthcare professionals to receive personalized guidance and ensure a healthy pregnancy.

2. Treatment for Menopause

Menopause signifies a crucial phase in a woman’s life, indicating the conclusion of her reproductive years. Managing the symptoms associated with menopause involves a combination of lifestyle adjustments, hormone therapy, and, in some cases, medications. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a common approach to alleviate symptoms such as hot flashes and mood swings by supplementing declining estrogen levels. Lifestyle modifications, including a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress management, play a crucial role in promoting overall well-being during menopause. It is essential for women to consult with their healthcare providers to tailor a treatment plan that addresses their specific symptoms and health considerations.

What Next?

1. For Pregnancy

Irrespective of age, women can adopt various measures to support a healthy pregnancy for themselves and their baby. These measures encompass:

  • Avoiding smoking and illegal substances: Pregnant women should refrain from smoking, using illegal drugs, and excessive alcohol consumption to avoid potential birth abnormalities or fetal complications.
  • Reviewing medication: Expectant mothers should consult with their doctors to review any medications they are taking, ensuring their safety during pregnancy.
  • Including healthy fruits and veggies in the diet: Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is recommended. Some foods, such as sushi, raw meats, deli meat, high-mercury fish, raw shellfish, raw eggs, and unpasteurized milk, should be avoided as they may pose risks to the baby.
  • Exercising regularly: Activities like meditation, light exercise, journaling, listening to music, or reading can help alleviate stress during pregnancy.
  • Giving rest to the body: Sufficient rest is crucial to preserve a pregnant woman’s energy levels.
  • Ensuring optimal hydration: Due to the significant increase in blood volume during pregnancy, adequate water intake is essential for the well-being of both the mother and the baby. Monitoring urine color, aiming for pale yellow, indicates proper hydration.

2. For Menopause

For women experiencing menopause, there are several measures they can adopt to maintain good health, including:

  • Maintaining balanced diet: Emphasizing the consumption of fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and low-fat dairy is recommended. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is particularly crucial during menopause, as declining estrogen levels may contribute to decreased bone density.
  • Making healthy lifestyle changes: Exercise serves to alleviate stress, maintain muscle strength, and promote heart health. It doesn’t need to be excessively strenuous; activities like walking, cycling, or participating in a 30-minute daily exercise class, such as aerobics, can contribute to overall well-being during menopause.
  • Building a peaceful ecosystem around you: During menopause, hormonal changes can impact mood and emotional health. Engaging in activities that promote mental well-being, such as mindfulness practices, meditation, or seeking support from friends and family, can contribute to a more balanced and positive experience during this transitional phase of life.


1. What Are the Chances of a Woman Getting Pregnant After Menopause?

The chances of getting pregnant after menopause are extremely low. Menopause is defined as the cessation of menstruation, indicating the end of a woman’s reproductive years. While spontaneous pregnancy is unlikely, assisted reproductive technologies such as egg donation may offer limited possibilities.

2. What Are the Chance of Getting Pregnant During Perimenopause?

During perimenopause, which is the transitional phase leading to menopause, fertility declines, but pregnancy is still possible. The irregular menstrual cycles and hormonal fluctuations characteristic of perimenopause make it challenging to predict fertility accurately. Women in perimenopause should be aware of the potential for pregnancy and use contraception if they wish to avoid it.

So is it menopause or pregnancy? This article aims to clarify your doubt. Menopause and pregnancy have several common symptoms. Due to this, women who are in their 40s may have difficulties determining if their symptoms are caused by pregnancy or menopause. The way to confirm this is by consulting your doctor, who will do diagnostic tests to determine the cause of your symptoms. If the cause is pregnancy, the woman will need to start eating healthy, taking prenatal vitamins, and preparing for childbirth. If it is menopause, the woman will have to take calcium and vitamin D supplements, exercise regularly, eat healthily, and consider hormone replacement therapy to reduce the symptoms of menopause.


1. Laopaiboon. M, Lumbiganon. P, Intarut. N, et al.; Advanced maternal age and pregnancy outcomes: a multicountry assessment (BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology); Obstetrics & Gynaecology;; March 2014

2. Menopause basics; Office on Women’s Health;

3. The Menopause Years; The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists;

4. What are some common signs of pregnancy?; National Institutes of Health;

5. Symptoms of pregnancy: What happens first; Mayo Clinic;

6. Menopause; Mayo Clinic;

7. The reality of menopause weight gain; Mayo Clinic;

Also Read:

Menopause – Stages and Symptoms
Is It Possible to Get Pregnant during Menopause?
Natural Treatments for Perimenopause and Menopause

Previous article «
Next article »