In this Article
- What Is Progesterone?
- What Is the Role of Progesterone in Pregnancy?
- How Can Progesterone Affect Your Pregnancy?
- What Are the Normal Progesterone Levels?
- What Are Low Progesterone Level?
- What Are the Causes of Low Progesterone Levels?
- Common Signs and Symptoms of Low Progesterone Levels During Pregnancy
- What Are the Side Effects of Low Progesterone Levels?
- What Are the Side Effects of High Progesterone Levels?
- Low Progesterone Treatment During Pregnancy
- Home Remedies
- Some Other Ways to Increase Your Progesterone Levels
During pregnancy, a woman’s body goes through many changes to facilitate the growth and the development of the foetus. These changes include an increase in hormone levels as well. One of the hormones that plays an important role during pregnancy is progesterone. This hormone is important during childbearing years and has a lot to contribute towards the health of the pregnant woman and her baby.
What Is Progesterone?
Progesterone is a female sex hormone that is produced in the ovaries each month. This hormone prepares the uterus for an impending pregnancy. If a woman gets pregnant during the ovulation period, the level of progesterone in her body increases in order to facilitate the pregnancy process. But if her progesterone levels are low, it may affect her ability to conceive and put her at a higher risk of a miscarriage.
What Is the Role of Progesterone in Pregnancy?
During pregnancy, the progesterone hormone increases the circulation of blood between the placenta and the uterus, stimulating the growth of breast glands to produce milk. It also protects the baby from getting rejected by the mother due to antibodies or other immune factors.
How Can Progesterone Affect Your Pregnancy?
Progesterone is of great importance during pregnancy because of the following reasons.
- It prepares the lining of the uterus to enable implantation.
- It regulate the body temperature from the end of the ovulation period and throughout menstruation.
- It thickens the lining of the uterus to ensure the success of a pregnancy.
- This hormone increases the flow of arterial blood and glycogen into the lining of the uterus to ensure that the baby gets enough nutrients.
- The progesterone hormone thickens the cervix and creates the mucus plug, which helps in blocking bacteria from entering the uterus.
- It helps prevent uterine contractions.
- Progesterone hormone also regulates your menstrual cycle.
What Are the Normal Progesterone Levels?
The normal levels of progesterone during pregnancy are given below. To help you understand better, we have provided the information on the basis of weeks and trimesters. Progesterone is of extreme importance in the first trimester. Read to find out how it increases in the initial weeks of pregnancy.
1. In the First and Second Week
In the first two weeks of pregnancy, ovaries release about 1 to 1.5 ng/ml of progesterone. You might not be pregnant yet, your body will produce progesterone to prepare for pregnancy. Your pregnancy will be calculated from the last day of your menstrual cycle, but you will not really be pregnant at least until the second week.
2. In the Third and Fourth Week
Once ovulation takes place, the endocrines in your ovaries will begin producing progesterone. During this time, your progesterone level will gradually rise to 2 ng/ml or more. This will stimulate the walls of the uterine to thicken in anticipation of implantation of the egg. Once the egg is fertilised in the third week, your progesterone levels will rise by 1 or 2 ng/ml every day.
3. In the Fifth and Sixth Week
Your progesterone levels may be anywhere between 10 ng/ml and 29 ng/ml during this time. Doctors expect a minimum of 6 ng/ml to 10 ng/ml during the fifth and the sixth week. At this point, the progesterone in your body will help develop the embryo and the placenta, along with facilitating the growth of your blood vessels. Progesterone is also responsible for the ‘pregnancy glow’ that you may notice. However, sometimes, it could also cause rashes or make your skin itch.
4. From Seventh to Fourteenth Week
From the seventh week, the progesterone will be produced in the placenta rather than the ovaries. This causes a slowdown in the rise of the progesterone levels. However, your progesterone levels will rise again around the end of the first trimester. Your progesterone levels may be anywhere between 15 to 60 g/ml during this time. This number can be higher for women with multiple pregnancies. The progesterone hormone will help relax your muscles during this time and make it easier for your body to expand and accommodate the growing baby. It will also prevent contractions during early pregnancy. However, high progesterone levels during this time can lead to indigestion, heartburn, constipation or haemorrhoids.
Given below is the trimester-wise information about progesterone levels during pregnancy.
1. First Trimester
During your first trimester, your progesterone levels can be between 9 and 47 ng/ml.
2. Second Trimester
A normal level of progesterone during the second trimester is between 17 and 147 ng/ml.
3. Third Trimester
The progesterone levels between 55 and 200 ng/ml are considered normal in the third trimester.
What Are Low Progesterone Level?
Progesterone levels are monitored throughout the first trimester in order to detect an ectopic pregnancy or a miscarriage. Progesterone levels lower than 6 to 10 ng/ml around the sixth week of pregnancy are considered to be low. If you are worried about low progesterone levels, you can ask your doctor to conduct a blood test. The results of the test will be provided to you within a day. For women who have had over 3 miscarriages within the 20th week of their pregnancy, doctors recommend progesterone treatment to prevent the chance of a miscarriage.
What Are the Causes of Low Progesterone Levels?
The common causes of low progesterone levels in early pregnancy include:
- Ectopic pregnancy – When the fertilized egg implants itself in the fallopian tube, the ovary, in the pelvic or abdominal cavity, or in the cervix, it is a case of an ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy should be diagnosed on time. If it is left untreated, it could lead to life-threatening complications.
- Loss of the foetus or the embryo early due to certain abnormalities in the chromosomes.
- A complete or incomplete miscarriage. This happens in about 10 to 25 percent of the pregnancies.
- A threatened miscarriage or an inevitable miscarriage. This may or may not progress.
- Low levels of BHCG leading to a chemical pregnancy. A chemical pregnancy is the loss of pregnancy in the early stages. It happens before the fifth week of gestation.
- The early death of the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum is responsible for the production of the progesterone in the ovaries until the placenta takes over.
Common Signs and Symptoms of Low Progesterone Levels During Pregnancy
A miscarriage is the most common sign of low progesterone levels during pregnancy. Although you may notice spotting and bleeding due to other reasons, it is always best to get your progesterone levels tested. Your doctor will conduct a blood test to check whether your pregnancy will survive or not. If your progesterone levels are too low, you won’t be able to carry the baby to term. If you identify any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor immediately.
What Are the Side Effects of Low Progesterone Levels?
If the progesterone levels are low during pregnancy, they might result in:
- A miscarriage
- A premature birth
- Low blood sugar levels
- Vaginal dryness
What Are the Side Effects of High Progesterone Levels?
If you have a high level of progesterone during pregnancy, you may face the following side effects:
1. Mood Swings
2. Stuffy Nose
Since progesterone is responsible for relaxing the muscles during pregnancy, unstable levels of this hormone may end up relaxing the smooth muscles of the nostrils as well. This can result in a stuffy nose.
A rise in the progesterone levels increases the flow of blood into the brain, which relaxes the blood vessels. This can result in migraines or severe headaches in women.
The hormone can also relax the intestinal muscles making it difficult for food to pass into the intestine, leading to constipation.
5. Breast Tenderness
It can cause tenderness and sensitivity in your breasts.
As the hormone affects the central nervous system, it can lead to extreme fatigue and sleepiness.
Low Progesterone Treatment During Pregnancy
If a woman has low progesterone, it will be difficult for her to get pregnant. But if a woman is pregnant, she should try to maintain healthy levels of progesterone hormone as they help carry a pregnancy to term. If your progesterone levels are low, your doctor will suggest various methods of treatment. Some of the common treatments for low progesterone during pregnancy are stated below –
- Hormone Therapy – This is provided to expecting women to enable optimal lining of the uterus and increase the chances of carrying the baby to term.
- The doctor might also suggest some creams and gels, which can be used topically. Some creams can be used vaginally too but only after consulting with the doctor.
- When low progesterone levels lead to fertility issues, then the doctor might recommend suppositories. Vaginal suppositories are medication that are inserted into the vagina with a special applicator.
- Vaginal rings with hormone releasing mechanisms may also be used. These release hormones at a slower pace than the oral medication.
- Oral pills like provera.
It is important that you do not use any over-the-counter medicines to increase the level of progesterone as these tend to be less effective. Also, it is ideal to consult a doctor and take the right prescription of medicines and supplements that you can consume.
Here are a few home remedies that you can try to increase your progesterone levels.
1. Increase the Amount of Vitamin B6 and Vitamin C in Your Diet
The liver requires Vitamin B6 to break down oestrogen. Lack of Vitamin B6 will slow the breaking down of oestrogen and increase its level in the body. This can create a hormonal imbalance. Seafood, walnuts, whole grains, lean red meat, poultry, beans, spinach, potato, etc are rich in Vitamin B6. You will also need to consume Vitamin C. Studies show that taking 750 mg of Vitamin C on a daily basis for over six months can considerably increase the progesterone levels in the body.
2. Consume Foods Rich in Zinc
Zinc is important to increase the production of progesterone in the body. The mineral zinc causes the pituitary gland to release hormones that stimulate the follicles in the ovaries. This leads to ovulation and the production of oestrogen and progesterone. Zinc is found in good quantity in foods like lean red meat, watermelon, dark chocolate, wheat germ, pumpkin, chickpeas, squash seeds, etc.
3. Eat Foods Rich in Magnesium
Magnesium is also important for maintaining a healthy amount of progesterone in the body as it promotes hormonal balance. You can include foods like black beans, pumpkin, okra, spinach, nuts, etc in your diet as they are rich in magnesium. You can also take dietary supplements.
Some Other Ways to Increase Your Progesterone Levels
Apart from these home remedies, there are some other ways too for increasing progesterone levels. Here’s what you can do:
1. Lower your stress levels
Chronic stress is known to affect the adrenal glands and lower the production of cortisol. Stress hormones can make the kidneys convert progesterone hormone to cortisol. High cortisol levels can be bad for your health. Hence, you should try to manage your stress. Indulge in activities to lower stress in your daily life. You can journal, read, listen to music, or meditate.
2. Maintain a healthy weight
If you are overweight, your body will produce more oestrogen, which could imbalance of progesterone levels in your body. The progesterone to oestrogen ratio should be normal. Although losing weight won’t increase your progesterone in your body, but it will balance your hormonal levels.
3. Do not overexercise
Performing exercises during pregnancy is good as it can help you manage your stress and maintain a healthy weight. But if you exercise too much, it can make your body produce more stress hormones than progesterone. If you want to continue exercising during pregnancy, you can swim, walk, or practise yoga. Strenous exercises should be avoided completely. Also, consult with a doctor before you start exercising.
1. Can Low Progesterone Levels Lead to an Ectopic Pregnancy?
Low progesterone levels can lead to an ectopic pregnancy. A study found that women who had ectopic pregnancies had progesterone levels lower than 22 ng/ml. However, out of all the patients with progesterone levels lower than 22 ng/ml, only 10 percent had ectopic pregnancies. According to the study, there is a good chance that your low progesterone levels will not lead to an ectopic pregnancy.
2. What Is Meant By a False Positive Progesterone Level?
A false positive progesterone level is when there is a rise in the level of progesterone in your body for a reason apart from pregnancy and ovulation. Some of the reasons why there might be an elevation in the progesterone levels in your body are:
- Ovarian cancer
- Adrenal cancer
- Taking progesterone pills or suppositories
- Aongenital adrenal hyperplasia, which is a condition that affects the adrenal gland
- It can also be due a laboratory error caused by a cross-reaction with other hormones
3. What If Progesterone Shows a False Positive Pregnancy HPT Test?
A pregnancy test shows result based on the levels of the hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) hormone. This pregnancy hormone is not similar to the progesterone hormone. The levels of progesterone in your body will not result in a false positive pregnancy test.
4. Can Low Progesterone Levels During Pregnancy Lead to a Miscarriage?
Low progesterone levels may be indicative of an ectopic pregnancy. It may also mean that the pregnancy may not last till term. Progesterone levels lower than 6 to 10 ng/ml in the 6th week of pregnancy can put you at a high risk of miscarriage.
Progesterone is essential for a smooth pregnancy and it is important to ensure that your progesterone levels are optimal to avoid any complications in pregnancy. Hence, it is recommended that you visit a doctor to measure your progesterone levels during pregnancy. Continue to monitor them during early pregnancy and seek timely treatment in case of low progesterone levels.
Also Read: HCG Levels during Pregnancy