Bronchiolitis in Babies – Causes, Signs And Treatment

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Bronchiolitis in Babies - Causes, Signs And Treatment

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Is your baby having a hard time breathing, and has he been losing appetite lately? Chances are, he has bronchitis, which is a very common illness between the ages of three and six months old.

What Is Bronchiolitis?

When mucus fills the air passages in the lungs, it causes inflammation, and prevents proper breathing and air flow regulation. This causes the baby to cough, giving him a hard time breathing. Bronchiolitis is a contagious condition in babies.

Difference Between Bronchitis and Bronchiolitis

In bronchitis, the larger airways get infected due to excessive mucus production, which the lungs try to eliminate through coughing. However, in bronchiolitis, inflammation results in the congestion of the bronchioles (small airways), which causes breathing difficulties in children.

Can Bronchiolitis Be a Problem for Babies?

Acute bronchiolitis in infants and babies are caused by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), and those with existing heart or lung conditions need to be hospitalised immediately when diagnosed with this illness. Most young children below age one face RSV infections. However, only 10% develop a bronchiolitis condition.

How Long Does Baby Bronchiolitis Last?

Most bronchiolitis cases last up to 12 days. However, coughing and wheezing may continue for weeks, even after this period. During the second or third day, the child faces breathing difficulty at its peak, after which recovery ensues.

When Is a Baby Most Likely to Get Bronchiolitis?

Babies are most likely to get Bronchiolitis between the ages of three months to six months old. Chances of developing bronchiolitis increase when they are directly exposed to cigarette smoke, if they were born prematurely, or if they have not been properly breastfed. Children who have a weakened immune system or have chronic heart/lung diseases are also at risk of developing bronchiolitis.

Causes of Bronchiolitis in Infants

The following are the primary causes of bronchiolitis in babies:

  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), which is contagious in nature
  • Adenoviruses, which are responsible for 10% of acute respiratory tract infections in children
  • Viruses which cause inflammation in the lungs, nose, and throat such as the influenza virus
  • Exposure to cigarette smoke and tobacco

Bronchiolitis Symptoms in Babies

You can prevent and treat bronchiolitis early by taking note of the following symptoms:

  • Baby refusing to be breastfed
  • Nasal flaring
  • Mild fever accompanied by a persistent cough
  • Skin areas above the collarbone and below the ribs sink with each breath
  • Wheezing or irregular breathing
  • Irritable mood and brief pauses between breaths
  • Vomiting immediately after being fed

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of bronchiolitis is usually done at a hospital or clinic. The doctor will collect a mucus sample of your child using a cotton swab, and observe your child’s breathing patterns by listening in to his chest through a stethoscope. If your child is suffering from severe bronchiolitis, your doctor may:

  • Conduct a chest X-ray exam
  • Run blood tests to check for the count of white blood cells in the body

Your doctor may also ask whether your child has been refusing to eat or not, and look for signs of dehydration due to improper breastfeeding, such as dry mouth and skin, and lack of sufficient urination.

Complications

Cyanosis is a potential complication caused by severe bronchiolitis, and is denoted by a blue tinge on the skin due to lack of sufficient oxygenation in blood cells. Dehydration accompanies severe bronchiolitis, alongside fatigue. In extreme cases, there is respiratory failure, which is fatal. If your child’s bronchiolitis is accompanied by a severe cold, he may be susceptible to pneumonia.

Treatment for Infant Bronchiolitis

There are various ways to treat infant bronchiolitis. They are the following:

  • Chest rubs on children using eucalyptus or camphor compounds provide relief from persistent cough.

Treatment for Infant Bronchiolitis

  • If your doctor allows it, you can give one or two nasal drops to your child.
  • Doctor-prescribed medications such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen also help.

Hospitalisation And Medication

If your child is in the extreme stages of bronchiolitis, then medications and hospitalisation  are necessary. A special liquid diet, along with IV fluids, will be given to your child, to prevent dehydration and worsening of existing symptoms.  Some antibiotics may be prescribed, if your doctor observes any signs of lung infections linked to your child’s acute bronchiolitis.

Home Remedies

The best way to prevent acute bronchiolitis is by spotting common symptoms and beginning prevention treatment at home. Here are some home remedies that work wonders for children:

  • High Fluid Intake – Encourage your child to increase his fluid intake by serving more water and warm soups. This will soothe his throat, and flush out mucus through coughing. A natural home remedy is warm water with lemon and honey. Green tea and cranberry juice are good beverages for bronchiolitis relief, too.
  • Enough Rest – Getting enough rest and recovery time for babies with bronchiolitis is crucial towards the treatment of the illness. Make sure your child sleeps in an upright position, and elevate his head by placing a couple of pillows under the mattress.
  • Steam Baths – Steam baths and warm showers are perfect ways to relieve nasal congestion and flush out mucus from the bronchioles. A steam shower may help your child improve his breathing, and also provide relaxation.
  • No Smoking – Ban smoking in your household, and do not permit family members or friends to smoke inside the house. Eliminate exposure to tobacco, and remove any irritants such as dust, pollen, and chemicals.
  • OTC Medications – If your child experiences pain and fever along with bronchiolitis symptoms, then you may administer over-the-counter medications like acetaminophen. Make sure to consult with your doctor before using the medications, and get a prescription for appropriate dosage and instructions.
  • Warm Compresses – If your child experiences difficulty breathing, then you may use a warm compress, and place it over his chest. It will help relieve congestion, and flush out mucus as well.
  • Use of a Humidifier – Install a humidifier at home, and prevent dehydration by running it during the nights.

Prevention

Bronchiolitis can be detected and prevented early on if you take precautions and safe measures. Here’s how you prevent it in infants and babies:

  • Clean Their Toys – Make sure you wash and wipe toys to get rid of dust and any outdoor contaminants.
  • Wash Hands – Make sure you wash your child’s hands (and yours) before every feeding session.
  • Use Disposable Tissues – Disposable tissues prevent viruses and infections from spreading to others. This will keep others safe from infections, especially your baby, if someone in the family already has bronchiolitis.
  • Exercise Hygiene at Home – Prevent exposure to cigarette smoke, tobacco, pollen, dust particles, and other environmental irritants. Keep your home hygienic, and wipe surfaces clean to prevent bronchiolitis from harming your baby.

When Should You Call the Doctor?

You should call the doctor immediately if you notice your child persistently coughing, and if breathing gets laboured. If your child experiences vomiting, has trouble eating properly, and is less than 12 months old with low birth weight, then you must immediately get him checked up at the clinic for precautionary measures. A dead giveaway for bronchiolitis is if your child’s skin turns blue (including lips and fingernails), and if his ribs go inward when he inhales (breathes in).

Although there are no specific treatment options available for complications of bronchiolitis, the best way you can get your child treated is to prevent it early on. Make sure you maintain a healthy lifestyle, and incorporate the above-mentioned tips and practices in your and your child’s daily routines, to prevent bronchiolitis from occurring in the future.

Also Read: A Guide to Baby Allergies & How to Handle Them

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