Important Vaccination for Children Upto 1 Year

Important Vaccination for Children Upto 1 Year

Each of us possesses a natural immune system that protects us against infections and illnesses. The immune system of babies is not fully developed at birth, putting them at greater risk for infection. The pathogens, on entering the body, multiply and cause infection. This leads to the pain and suffering of our little ones. Hence, it is essential to get our babies 12 important vaccinations in their first year of life. It not only prevents the disease but also secures their healthy future.

Why Does Your Baby Need Vaccinations?

Babies are exposed to many germs every day in their surroundings. This happens through the food they eat, the air they breathe and the things they put in their mouth. Babies are born with an immune system that can fight most of the germs, but there are some serious diseases that require extra protection. Vaccinations reduce the risk of severe infections by giving your baby’s immune system a boost and helping it develop a guard against the pathogens. Vaccines contain minimal amounts of antigens to get the immune system to recognise the antigen. The next time the immune system comes in contact with the same antigen, the immune system recognises the antigen and fights it off.  

Important Vaccinations That Should Be Given to Children Below 1 Year

Vaccinations at Birth

Age of
Vaccination
Disease Brief Route of Transmission Symptoms
Vaccination Available *
At birth Hepatitis B It is caused by Hepatitis B virus and affects the liver. It may cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis, liver failure or even death in some cases. When in contact with infected individual’s body fluids Jaundice, dark coloured urine, fatigue, stomach pain, nausea
First dose given at birth. It is a 4-dose schedule
At birth Tuberculosis (TB) Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it attacks the lungs. Air-borne disease. Cough lasting for more than 3 weeks, chest pain, coughing blood or sputum, fatigue, chills
BCG – Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine protects against TB, given at the time of birth
OPV given at birth (Oral Polio Vaccine)
IPV – 6 weeks onwards
(Injectable Polio Vaccine)
Polio Vaccine Caused by Polio virus and can infect the spinal cord, limbs, or any part of the body. May also cause paralysis Air-borne disease Muscle tenderness, floppy and loose muscles, fever, sore throat, weakness fatigue
Oral Vaccine is given at the time of birth, and minimum 4 doses of injectable polio vaccine (IPV)
6, 10, 14 weeks Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Diphtheria is a respiratory disease.
Tetanus causes the tightening of jaw muscles.
Pertussis is also known as whooping cough.
Diphtheria and Pertussis are both air-borne diseases
Tetanus spreads when bacterial spores enter the body through deep cuts. Spores usually reside in soil, manure, iron rust, etc
Diphtheria – Fever, swollen neck, thick gray coating lining nose or throat

Pertussis – Cold, cough, mild fever, and difficulty in breathing

Tetanus – jaw cramping, muscle stiffness, seizures, fever and sweating

Combination of 3 vaccines – DPT Vaccine is available. Recommended in a 3 + 1 booster dose schedule
6, 10, 14 weeks Hib: Haemophilus influenzae type B Infects the lining of the brain and spinal cord. It can cause a severe infection of the blood. Air-borne disease Pneumonia, infection of blood or infection of meningitis (membrane covering the brain and spinal cord)
Recommended in a 3 + 1 booster dose schedule
6, 10, 14 weeks Rotavirus
(Oral Vaccine)
Spreads easily amongst infants and children, caused by Rotavirus Spreads due to lack of hygiene and sanitation facilities when infants touch or consume contaminated articles Severe watery diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain, dehydration and, in some cases, may need hospitalization
3-dose or 2-dose schedule starting from 6 weeks onwards (depending upon brand)
6, 10, 14 weeks Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, it can range from ear and sinus infections to pneumonia and bloodstream infections Spreads through direct contact with respiratory secretions like saliva or mucus Fever, cough, difficulty in breathing and chest pain
Vaccination is available in a 3 + 1 booster dose schedule
6 months Influenza Caused by Swine Flu (H1N1) and 3 other flu strains Air-borne disease Cold, cough, fever, runny nose, itchy eyes, body ache
Annual influenza vaccination is recommended
6 months Typhoid It is a life-threatening illness caused by Salmonella typhi Spreads through sewage contamination of food and water, and via personal contact Sustained high fever of 103-104⁰F, along with stomach pain, fatigue, diarrhoea or constipation Single dose
9 months Measles, Mumps & Rubella Measles are small red spots on the entire skin, highly contagious
Mumps is swelling of salivary glands due to viral infection
Rubella is caused by a virus; pinkish rashes start appearing across the face and body
All 3 are air-borne diseases Measles – small red spots breakout on the entire body with fever, headache
Mumps – Puffiness of neck, cheeks, eyes, and entire face due to swelling of salivary glands
Rubella – low grade fever with rashes across body
3 dose schedule is recommended
9 months Meningococcal Disease It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, affects the meninges and is life-threatening if left untreated Spreads through direct contact with respiratory secretions like saliva or mucus 0-8 hours symptoms are like the common cold and flu, later it progresses rapidly into stiff neck, light sensitivity, fever, and nausea.
2 dose below 1 year or single dose above 2 years is recommended
12 months Hepatitis A Caused by Hepatitis A virus. It is highly contagious Spreads through ingestion of contaminated food or water Jaundice, dark-coloured urine, nausea, fatigue, stomach pain
Vaccination is available; consult doctor for a schedule.

* – Information about Vaccination mentioned above is based on recommendations received from Health Experts. For any further information, please consult your infant’s paediatrician

6 Vaccinations from 6 Weeks to 6 Months

Vaccinations for 6 Months to 1 Year of Age

How Can Mothers Prepare the Baby for a Vaccination?

  1. Dress your baby in clothes that are easy to remove
  2. Remember to keep your child in a position comfortable to them
  3. During the vaccination, you can have your little one taste something sweet to reduce their pain response

If possible, you can even breastfeed your child while they are getting vaccinated, as this will help distract them and give them comfort.  

After Vaccination Care of Babies

  1. Your child may experience mild reactions like rashes or fever. These are normal and will go away on their own.  
  2. Give your baby more fluids and ensure that they are well hydrated.
  3. Carefully read the vaccination information sheet to learn about the side effects.
  4. You can give them a water sponge bath for the fever.
  5. Keep your baby comfortable and keep an eye on them for any adverse reactions from the vaccination.  

Over the years, vaccines have prevented countless cases of disease and saved millions of lives of infants. Protecting your infant’s health, and securing their future by vaccinating them in early life, along with taking care of other preventive measures such as sanitation and hygiene, is recommended by various health authorities and experts.

Please consult your baby’s paediatrician for any more information.

To know more about the disease, click here

myvaccinationhub

Disclaimer: Issued in public interest by GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Limited. Dr. Annie Besant Road, Worli, Mumbai 400 030, India.

Information appearing in this material is for general awareness only. Nothing contained in this material constitutes medical advice. Please consult your doctor for any medical queries, any question or concern you may have regarding your condition. The disease list indicated for vaccination is not complete, please consult your doctor for the complete vaccination schedule

NP-IN-ABX-OGM-220075, DoP Feb 2023

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Rama is a proud Delhiite with three years of content writing experience in her pocket. She is a commerce graduate with an advanced degree in the German language, but writing feels like home to her. When she is not writing,, you can probably find her researching on environment sustainability, devouring a novel, or exploring hidden nooks for delicious food around the city.