Water Pollution for Kids: Information and Facts to Know

Water Pollution Information and Facts for Kids

We are not only responsible for giving our kids a good education and a great life but there’s also a dire need to make the next generation aware of the environment. The impact that certain actions can have on one of our prized resources – water – is a lesson kids should learn when they are young. There is a necessity for learning to be present around water pollution for kids. That is why, in this article, we have mentioned some water pollution facts for kids that they must know. We have also covered important information on the same. Let’s read!

What Is Water Pollution?

When various natural water bodies on the Earth, such as lakes, rivers, underground aquatic reservoirs, seas, and oceans are subjected to contamination from man-made activities, such a phenomenon is termed as water pollution. Artificial chemicals, pollutants, particles, and other objects making their way to these water bodies is what results in their pollution.

Different Types of Water Pollution

Pollution can be categorized into many types which are as follows:

1. Pollution by Foreign Nutrients

When entities containing high quantities of nutrients, such as fertilizers, domestic wastewater and sewage, enter the water bodies, these support the growth of various types of weed, algae, and other plants that are harmful to the water body. They not only render the water unfit for human consumption but also reduce the oxygen level, causing harm to the existing flora and fauna.

2. Pollution of Surface Water

Artificial chemicals, waste products from various industries and factories, insecticides, and pesticides from the runoff of the farms, flow out of the area and mix with surface water in the surrounding areas.

Polluted river

3. Pollution Leading to Reduced Oxygen Levels

Naturally occurring water bodies contain a balanced amount of micro-organisms that contribute to the presence of oxygen in the water, termed as aerobic and their complements, anaerobic. When wastage that is biodegradable enters water bodies, anaerobic organisms find an affinity towards them, leading to a burst of their growth. This leads to the destruction of aerobic organisms and substantial reduction in the oxygen levels of the water.

4. Pollution of Underground Reservoirs

Groundwater is a major source of water across many areas away from rivers or purified water supply. However, usage of chemical pesticides and insecticides in the farms causes them to seep through the ground and pollute the underground reserves. At times, these may reach the outer lakes and rivers, and pollute them too.

Polluted water running from a concrete pipeline

What Causes Water Pollution?

There is no one reason to be considered as the cause of water pollution. There are in fact many. From industries to household activities…water pollution is a big problem caused by every day trivial things of life

1. Pollution from Industrial Sources

Industries and factories generate a lot of waste which majorly consists of harmful elements such as lead, sulphur, and mercury which are extremely poisonous and are mixed with fresh water bodies.

2. Pollution from Households

Everyday sewage from cities is dumped into oceans. These might be chemically treated beforehand, but they do contain bacteria and chemicals that are harmful.

3. Pollution Generated from Mining Activities

Certain countries, such as Canada, are highly affected by water pollution due to mining activities. Mines of coals and other metals could come in contact with surface water or other bodies, creating harmful polluting conditions.

4. Pollution from Garbage

Nearly all countries with ineffective waste management systems dump their garbage and waste into the oceans. From household garbage to general civic waste, all enter the oceanic water bodies and pollutes them tremendously.

5. Pollution from Oil Spills

Major oil spills, like the Deepwater Horizon or Exxon Valdes, can create havoc in the oceans and lead to extreme amounts of loss in marine life. It can also cause irreparable damage to the marine ecosystem that can be difficult to reverse.

6. Pollution from Fossil Fuel Combustion

Burning coal and other fossil fuels lead to aerial waste products and ash, which combine with water vapour. These result in acid rain and further increase global warming, both of which directly impact the pollution in water bodies.

7. Pollution from Farms

Chemical fertilizers and pesticides used by farmers seep through the ground and affect the underground water reservoirs directly. These can further pollute rivers and canals as well, leading to a harmful water supply for humans and other creatures.

8. Pollution from Landfills

Landfills might be away from water bodies but in the course of rainfall, the pollutants of the landfill can find their way to the nearest water body and pollute it.

Effects of Water Pollution

It is necessary to make kids aware of the effects of water pollution, as water pollution is now a raging topic and if soon preventive actions are not taken, the coming generation won’t have clean water to drink.

1. Food Chain Destruction

Water pollution can result in the destruction of marine life or a particular animal type within an ecosystem. Furthermore, if any other animal ends up consuming an infected animal, the infection progresses further and further through the food chain. This results in a huge infection throughout the chain and heavily impacts the population of the fauna.

2. Loss of Marine Life

Oil spills can ruin an entire ecosystem and leave a huge section of the ocean completely lifeless. These spills could reach shores and cause further damage to wildlife and birds that depend on the marine life for sustenance.

Oil spill

3. Disease Outbreaks

Polluted water can make its way back to the household and result in people being infected with bacteria and viruses. Most diseases such as hepatitis are transmitted through polluted water itself. An entire city can suffer from a massive outbreak of typhoid or cholera by pollution of water.

Ways to Prevent Water Pollution for Children

With such large problems, there are some small water pollution solutions for kids that can be undertaken to counter it.

  • Never throw garbage around or leave it behind at a lake or a beach. Always take it with you.
  • When done with a meal, separate the trash from your plate and any oily substances in the garbage. Do not mix them in the kitchen sink.
  • Do not use chemical pesticides such as weed killers or other fertilizers in your household gardens. Talk to your parents to find better environment-friendly alternatives for them.
  • Do not wash your family car in an open street. The soap and any petroleum chemicals from the car can mix with the drain and reach the water bodies.
  • Save pure water. Use it sparingly and avoid wasting it unnecessarily. Keep all faucets and taps tightened and ensure there is no leakage of pure water anywhere.

Some Other Water Pollution Facts for Children

Water pollution information for children can make them further aware of the situation in the world around them.

  • Only 1% of Earth’s water is fit for consumption.
  • 5-10 million people die each year from illness as a result of water pollution.
  • 3 trillion gallons of wastewater is dumped in oceans every year.
  • 250 million people around the world do not have fresh water to drink.
  • The BP oil spill resulted in the death of nearly a 1000 marine animals.
  • 27% of the world’s cities do not have the infrastructure for safe drinking water.
  • Cholera and other water-borne diseases still affect millions around the world.
  • The Fukushima reactor meltdown caused 2 million gallons of radioactive water to enter the ocean.
  • 15 million children less than 5 years old die due to water borne diseases.
  • 20% of China’s groundwater is filled with cancerous chemicals.

Water Pollution Games/Activities for Children

Teaching children about water pollution is not only crucial for their understanding of environmental issues but also empowers them to become future advocates for a cleaner planet. Engaging in games and activities can make learning about water pollution both educational and enjoyable. Here are a couple of interactive activities designed to educate and inspire children about this important topic.

1. Pollution Pictionary

What Will You Need:

  • Whiteboard and markers
  • Pictures or flashcards representing various sources of water pollution (e.g., factory, car, trash)
  • A list of potential pollution-related words

How to Play:

  1. Divide the children into teams.
  2. Each team takes turns sending a representative to draw a picture related to water pollution on the whiteboard. They can choose from the provided pictures or come up with their own.
  3. The rest of the team has to guess what the drawing represents within a time limit.
  4. For an added challenge, you can also provide a list of pollution-related words for the drawer to choose from.

2. Clean-Up Relay Race

What Will You Need

  • Timer or stopwatch
  • Trash bags or buckets
  • Various items (e.g., plastic bottles, wrappers) representing “pollution”

How to Play:

  1. Set up a relay race course with a clear starting point and a designated “clean-up” area at the end.
  2. Divide the children into teams and give each team a trash bag or bucket.
  3. Scatter the “pollution” items along the course.
  4. When the race starts, each team member must race to the pollution items, pick them up, and put them in their team’s designated container.
  5. The next team member can only start once the previous one has returned.
  6. Time each team and declare a winner based on speed and cleanliness.


1. When Did Water Pollution Start?

Water pollution has been a concern since ancient civilizations, with early instances documented in Roman times. However, industrialization in the 18th century marked a significant increase in pollution levels, leading to widespread environmental degradation.

2. Who First Discovered Water Pollution?

The concept of water pollution has been recognized since ancient times. Early civilizations, such as the Romans, Greeks, and Egyptians, documented instances of contaminated water sources. However, the modern understanding and systematic study of water pollution emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries with the advancement of science and environmental awareness. Pioneers like Sir Edward Frankland and Louis Pasteur made significant contributions to this field.

3. How Can Children Identify Water Pollution in Their Communities?

Children can identify water pollution by visually inspecting water bodies, observing aquatic life, using testing kits, engaging with the community, and reporting findings to local authorities or environmental groups for action.

Water pollution is a real problem and it needs to be addressed in time. By being more aware of it and taking the necessary actions to counter it, we can ensure that the next generation doesn’t have to face the negative consequences of our actions.

Also Read:

Must Know Planet Earth Facts for Children
Air Pollution Facts to Teach Your Kids
Facts About Fossil Fuels for Children
Facts about Global Warming and Climate Change for Kids

Previous article «
Next article »