Neonatal Hypoglycaemia means abnormally low plasma glucose levels in the new-born. Low blood sugar in babies is normal as the sugar levels tend to crash for infants shortly after birth. However, one must only start with their feed to ensure it goes up. Failure to do so may result in long-term issues including seizures and permanent neurological damage.
Video: Neonatal Hypoglycemia – Causes, Treatment & Prevention
What is Hypoglycaemia?
Neonatal period means the first 28 days of life. Hypo means ‘low’ and glycemia is the term used for ‘blood sugar levels’. Neonatal Hypoglycaemia is defined as a plasma glucose level of less than 45mg/dl, (at times for the first hour it can be transiently 30mg/dl, but needs to be cross-checked within 10 minutes again). The body’s sugar levels are regulated by one’s hormones, the key hormone being insulin. Insulin regulates the body sugar (blood glucose) and looks after its utilization and metabolism (breakdown). When the organs and hormones are in homeostasis (balanced), your baby’s hormones keep their blood sugar levels under control but when the balance is out, hypoglycaemia in infants can happen.
Causes of Hypoglycaemia in Newborn Babies
Various conditions that might be the causes of low blood sugar in new-born babies include:
- Infants of diabetic mother (IDM): Uncontrolled diabetes in the mother results in excessive insulin production. Although insulin does not cross the placenta, glucose and other nutrients do. So extra blood glucose goes through the placenta, giving the baby high blood glucose levels. This causes the baby’s pancreas to make extra insulin to get rid of the blood glucose.
- Premature births: Babies who are born before term are prone to hypoglycaemia.
- Birth weight: Less than 2 kg babies.
- Mothers on certain medications: Like Terbutaline, Propanolol, Labetalol, oral hypoglycaemic agents, etc.
- Advanced RH Haemolytic diseases (an incompatibility of the baby’s blood group with the mother): Rh Blood group mismatch (negative or positive types) between mother and child can cause hypoglycaemia.
- Congenital defects and metabolic diseases since birth: Genetic and metabolic disorders since birth may cause lower blood sugars in the new-born.
- Birth Asphyxia: Babies that have suffered low oxygen levels during birth and in the first few hours after birth are prone to hypoglycaemia.
- Cold stress (conditions that are too cold): Hypothermia or abnormally low body temperatures may be a cause of hypoglycaemia.
- Liver diseases
- Infections: New-borns with maternal or congenital infections may suffer low blood sugars.
Symptoms of Hypoglycaemia (Low Blood Sugar) in New-borns
Neonatal Hypoglycaemia symptoms may not always be present. Careful and repeated clinical examinations may pick up symptoms suggestive of low blood sugars, they may include:
- Bluish discolouration or pale skin: It may be associated with poor vascular and oxygen supply to the body leading to cyanosis or pallor.
- Breathing problems, including pause(apnea), rapid shallow breathing, or a grunting sound
- Irritability or listlessness
- Loose or floppy muscles
- Poor feeding or vomiting
- Problems keeping the body warm or hypothermia
- Tremors, shakiness or seizures: Hypoglycaemia may cause temporary or permanent neurological damage including fits or delayed milestones and significant developmental delay.
Which Newborns are at Risk for Neonatal Hypoglycaemia?
Following conditions pose a higher risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia:
- Diabetes in the Mother: Excess glucose from the mother may stimulate high insulin production in the baby which acts against and lowers the glucose levels of the baby significantly, causing symptoms.
- Prematurity: Babies who are smaller than expected for their gestational time or babies with retarded growths may have few glycogen stores.
- Babies Born Under Stressful Conditions: Difficult labour or prolonged obstructed delivery may lead to hypoglycaemia in the baby.
- Unstable Temperatures: Babies exposed to unstable temperatures or when certain drugs (like terbutaline) cause hypothermia in the mother.
- Large Babies: Babies larger for their age of gestation (months of pregnancy) tend to show symptoms of hypoglycaemia This might be associated usually with gestational diabetes, but are also reported with congenital hyperinsulinism.
What Are the Complications of Neonatal Hypoglycaemia?
Prompt detection of signs of hypoglycaemia in newborns and early initiation of treatment may prevent harmful effects of hypoglycaemia. However, the following complications may occur:
- Seizure disorder
- Cardiac conditions, including heart failure
- Developmental delays and permanent brain damage, including cerebral palsy
Diagnosis of Hypoglycaemia in Newborn Babies
If a baby exhibits symptoms or associated risk factors for hypoglycaemia, a clinician may conduct a quick clinical assessment and order blood sugar levels of the new-born instantly and at fixed intervals for constant monitoring.
- Plasma glucose levels: Finger prick, heel prick or umbilical vein sample.
- Serum insulin: In cases of recurrent or permanent hypoglycaemia. Insulinoma, a rare pancreatic tumour may cause hypoglycaemia.
- Checking urine sugars: Urine sugars may be checked from time to time to detect the presence of glucose or ketones. But a newborn may not pass urine normally in the first 48 hours, which is normal. Hence it is not reliable.
- Screening for metabolic errors: This may be required for a detailed workup of new-borns with hypoglycaemia.
Treatment for Neonatal Hypoglycaemia
Management of Hypoglycaemia in newborns is diverse and can range from the simple task of feeding to surgical intervention. Some of the treatments include:
- Adequate and timely feeding, assessing the consciousness levels and seeking early medical help is one approach to take before admitting the baby to a hospital.
- Initial stabilization and supportive care include supplemental oxygen, intravenous access and monitoring of the baby’s vitals.
- Intravenous 5 or 10 per cent dextrose solution may be administered to severely ill babies or in recurrent cases.
- Anti-Epileptic drugs may be necessary for recurring or refractory seizures.
- Surgical removal of a part of the pancreas may be suggested for congenital hyperinsulinism.
Can Hypoglycaemia in Newborn Babies Be Prevented?
Early and adequate breastfeeding helps prevent recurrence of hypoglycaemia in new-born babies. Mothers with diabetes can prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia by tightly controlling their blood glucose levels to maintain them in a normal range. However, neonatal hypoglycaemia may not be totally preventable. One can only watch for symptoms and treat the problem at the earliest.
Can I Breastfeed If My Baby Is Suffering From Hypoglycaemia?
Breastfeeding a hypoglycaemic neonate depends on the clinical condition of the new-born and their ability to suck and latch-on. If the new-born appears conscious and not drowsy or jittery, one may breastfeed safely with proper medical supervision and advice.
Breastfeeding is advised to prevent recurrence of hypoglycaemia, with due emphasis on early initiation and close body contact under kangaroo care.
When Should I Call the Doctor?
A doctor’s opinion will be needed if you notice your baby appearing sluggish or excessively sleepy, jittery, shaky, not feeding well or bluish discolouration especially of the nose or fingertips.
Conclusion: Neonatal Hypoglycaemia is a serious yet treatable common metabolic condition in newborns. It may have a significant impact on the neurological health of the baby. Adequate preventive measures and early diagnosis with prompt treatment may help counter this potential problem in newborns.